Porting Snowplow to Microsoft Azure

As part of our drive to make the Snowplow community more collaborative and widen our network of open source contributors, we will be regularly posting our proposals for new features, apps and libraries under the Request for Comments section of our forum. You are welcome to post your own proposals too!

This Request for Comments is to port the Snowplow event pipeline to run natively on Microsoft Azure. By natively, we mean that Snowplow should be tailored to make best use of Azure-specific products and services.

1. Background on Azure

Azure is a cloud computing service by Microsoft, equivalent in scope and ambition to Amazon Web Services or Google Cloud Platform. The Azure offering has been steadily built up since its launch in February 2010, and now comprises over 600 in-house and third-party compute- and data-oriented services.

Azure is particularly popular in finance, manufacturing and gaming - see the Azure case studies for more information.

2. Snowplow platform compatibility so-far

A brief recap on Snowplow’s current platform support:

  • At the start of 2012 we launched the Snowplow batch pipeline running on AWS using EMR, S3 and associated service
  • In February 2014 we launched the Snowplow real-time pipeline running on AWS, making heavy use of Amazon Kinesis
  • In November 2016 we released an alpha of the Snowplow real-time pipeline ported to run on-premise using Apache Kafka

As you can see, Snowplow has been closely tied to AWS since its inception over five years ago. However, while we do make heavy use of leading AWS services such as Redshift, EMR and Kinesis, in fact little of the Snowplow processing logic is AWS-specific.

3. Cross-platform Snowplow

The cloud services market has changed over the past few years: while AWS continues to be the market leader, GCP and Azure are growing fast, launching their own “hero” services such as Google BigQuery and Azure Data Lake Analytics. Meanwhile, a new generation of infrastructure technologies like Kafka, Kubernetes and OpenShift are helping to define a kind of “common runtime” for on-premise software deployments.

What does all this mean for Snowplow? A key priority for us in 2017 is extending our software to run on these other core runtimes: Google Cloud Platform, Microsoft Azure and on-premise. Cross-platform Snowplow should help:

  1. Broaden Snowplow adoption - we want Snowplow to be available to companies on whichever cloud or on-premise architecture they have adopted
  2. Deliver “pipeline portability” - investing in Snowplow shouldn’t lock you into a specific cloud platform indefinitely. You should be able to bring the core capabilities - and data - of your Snowplow pipeline with you when you migrate from one cloud to another
  3. Enable “hybrid pipelines” - you use AWS everywhere but your data scientists love BigQuery? You want a lambda data processing architecture with Azure HDInsight plus Kinesis Analytics? We want to support Snowplow pipelines which connect together best-in-class services from different clouds as required

Stay tuned for our Google Cloud Platform RFC, coming in early June.

Let’s now look specifically at Microsoft Azure support for Snowplow.

4. Snowplow and Azure

To date we have not experimented with Microsoft Azure at Snowplow - however we have had some customer/user interest in running Snowplow on Azure, and had a lively snowplow/snowplow GitHub issue discussing the possibilities for porting to Azure.

Following that initial discussion, we connected with the global Microsoft DX team for Azure, who have been able to review an early draft of this RFC.

Considering a port to a new cloud, we have to answer a few key questions:

  1. What cloud-native services does this cloud provide which could be used for the various components of Snowplow?
  2. What services shall we use?
  3. How do we implement a pipeline from these services?
  4. What components do we need to extend or create?

Answering these questions starts by taking an inventory of the relevant Azure services.

5. Inventory of relevant Azure services

The relevant Azure services are:

Snowplow component(s) AWS service(s) Azure service(s) Description
Unified log Amazon Kinesis Event Hubs "Cloud-scale telemetry ingestion from websites, apps and any streams of data"
Unified log & Storage Amazon S3 Azure Blob Storage "Massively scalable object storage for unstructured data"
Event collection AWS Elastic Beanstalk Web Apps (App Service) "Create and deploy mission-critical web apps that scale with your business" - https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/services/app-service/web/
Event collection AWS Elastic Load Balancing & AWS Auto Scaling Virtual Machine Scale Sets "Manage and scale up to thousands of Linux and Windows virtual machines"
Event enrichment Amazon Elastic MapReduce Azure HDInsight "A cloud Spark and Hadoop service for your enterprise"
Event enrichment Kinesis Client Library Microsoft Azure Event Hubs Client for Java "Allows for both sending events to and receiving events from an Azure Event Hub"
Storage - Azure Data Lake Store "A no-limits data lake to power intelligent action"
Event data modeling & Analytics Amazon Redshift Azure SQL Data Warehouse "Elastic data warehouse-as-a-service with enterprise-class features"
Event data modeling & Analytics AWS Lambda Azure Functions "Process events with serverless code"
Event data modeling & Analytics AWS Athena / Redshift Spectrum Azure Data Lake Analytics "Distributed analytics service that makes big data easy"

Sources: Directory of Azure Cloud Services; AWS to Azure services comparison.

Some of the above services are relatively similar to their AWS counterparts - for example, Azure HDInsight is a relatively close proxy to EMR, and Azure Event Hubs have similar semantics to Apache Kafka or Amazon Kinesis.

However, we also see some distinctive “hero” services here:

5.1 Azure Data Lake Store

Azure Data Lake Store (ADLS) has no direct equivalent in AWS - think of ADLS as like Amazon S3 but re-architected to support massive scale analytics on the data. This is hugely exciting for Snowplow users - it brings the possibility of extremely fast ad hoc analytics on your entire Snowplow enriched event archive.

In theory we could use ADLS everywhere where we use S3 in the AWS pipeline. However, ADLS is more expensive than Azure Blob Storage.

5.2 Azure Data Lake Analytics

Azure Data Lake Analytics is an on-demand analytics service that can run queries against huge data volumes stored in Azure.

It is somewhat similar to AWS Athena (Presto), but far fuller featured - for example, Data Lake Analytics’s U-SQL query language is highly programmable and extensible in C#, Python and even R.

6. Pipeline implementation

When we look to adapt Snowplow to a new cloud, we want our new implementation to:

  • Preserve the “essence” of Snowplow, including all of our core capabilities. At a bare minimum, it should be possible to migrate to or from the new cloud without losing access to your Snowplow event archive
  • Be idiomatic to the new cloud’s capabilities, services and recommended design patterns
  • Make good use of the new cloud’s “hero services” - Snowplow should avoid using the “lowest common denominator” services across each cloud

Drawing on our Snowplow Lambda architecture, here is a proposed implementation on Azure which covers both batch and real-time use cases:

There are a set of assumptions implicit in this design:

6.1 Using Azure Event Hubs as our unified log

The Snowplow batch pipeline on AWS uses S3 as its unified log; the Snowplow real-time pipeline uses Kinesis. If we were starting building Snowplow on AWS today, it’s unlikely we would use a blob storage like S3 as our unified log again.

Azure Event Hubs are a close mapping onto Kinesis - so we will settle on Event Hubs as our unified log service on Azure.

6.2 Extending the Scala Stream Collector, not the Clojure Collector

It should be relatively straightforward for us to extend the Scala Stream Collector to support an Event Hub sink. This is the simplest way of bringing Snowplow event collection to Azure, and is also compatible with our Replacing the Clojure Collector RFC.

We would likely run Scala Stream Collector in Azure using Virtual Machine Scale Sets (VMSS), not Web Apps.

Web Apps are a PaaS-level abstraction, somewhat similar to Elastic Beanstalk, and we have found that Beanstalk-level abstractions have too much “magic” for predictable event collection. By contrast, VMSS is closer to the AWS Auto Scaling that works so well for the Scala Stream Collector on AWS.

6.3 Continuing separation of Stream Enrich and Spark Enrich

We plan on maintaining the separation of Stream Enrich and Spark Enrich, rather than trying for example to harmonize these into a single component, such as Spark (Streaming) Enrich. This is driven by a few factors:

  1. This should minimize the amount of extra code that needs to be added to Spark Enrich
  2. This should provide more event processing flexibility on the real-time pipeline - the micro-batching behavior of Spark Streaming is quite restrictive in how it can buffer events
  3. This should reduce operational complexity for the real-time pipeline - because it won’t be dependent on a whole Spark runtime
  4. This should make it easier to support hybrid clouds - because Stream Enrich can read from one unified log technology and write to another

6.4 Using Blob Storage for raw events, Data Lake Store for enriched events

Azure Data Lake Store (ADLS) is an exciting technology and the temptation is to use it everywhere as our Amazon S3 storage equivalent. However, ADLS is more expensive than simple Azure Blob Storage, and in practice the raw events are rarely re-used - because full re-processings of a Snowplow raw event archive are infrequent.

Therefore, we propose:

  • Using Azure Blob Storage for the infrequently used raw event (aka collector payloads) archive
  • Using Azure Data Lake Store for the frequently queries enriched event archive

7. New and extended components

With these assumptions in place, here are some implementation notes on the particular components we need to create or extend:

7.1 Stream Enrich

For the real-time pipeline, we could embed the Microsoft Azure Event Hubs Client for Java in our Stream Enrich application, alongside the Kinesis Client Library (KCL).

The Microsoft Azure Event Hubs Client for Java seems to be less feature-rich than the Kinesis Client Library (KCL) - but this is probably a good thing; beyond the valuable checkpointing and leader election capabilities in the KCL, there is a lot of complexity which we would like to avoid, such as the way that a single Stream Enrich process can run multiple shard workers internally.

The Java Client uses Azure Blob Storage for checkpointing and leader election (equivalent to how the KCL uses DynamoDB).

7.2 Spark Enrich and Dataflow Runner

Spark Enrich is the new name for our Scala Hadoop Enrich component. It should be possible to run our batch event processing job to run on HDInsight, with a few changes:

7.3 Event Hub to Blob Storage and Data Lake Store

Azure Event Hubs have a built-in Archive capability but:

  • This seems to only support Azure Blob Storage, not Azure Data Lake Store
  • The Avro-based format is incompatible with the Twitter Elephant Bird Protobuf-based format that Snowplow uses for raw event archiving

Therefore, we may need to extend or port Kinesis S3 to add support for:

  1. Sinking raw events from an Event Hubs stream to Azure Blob Storage in Elephant Bird format
  2. Sinking enriched events to Azure Data Lake Store

7.4 Azure Data Lake Analytics and a Snowplow .NET Analytics SDK

Once the Snowplow enriched events are stored in Azure Data Lake Store, we would like to run data modeling and analytics processes on this data using Azure Data Lake Analytics.

The current Snowplow enriched event format is quite hard to work with - we normally recommend interfacing with those events using our Scala or Python Analytics SDKs. With Azure Data Lake Analytics we could do something similar:

  1. Port our Scala Analytics SDK to a .NET Analytics SDK
  2. Write a custom extractor for Data Lake Analytics that embeds our .NET Analytics SDK
  3. Use this extractor from U-SQL to run queries on Snowplow enriched events

7.5 Azure SQL Data Warehouse Loader

We can identify two requirements for loading Azure SQL Data Warehouse:

  1. In the batch pipeline, loading each new run of Snowplow enriched events
  2. In the real-time pipeline, loading incoming enriched events as fast as possible

Given that Azure SQL Data Warehouse does not seem to support streaming inserts per the load documentation, it would make sense to use Spark Streaming for this loader. This loader would operate in two modes:

  1. For the batch pipeline, operate in standard Spark mode, reading enriched events from Azure Data Lake Store
  2. For the real-time pipeline, operate in Spark Streaming mode, reading direct from the Events Hubs enriched events stream

7.6 SQL Runner

Many of our users use SQL Runner to perform event data modeling on the events once in Redshift.

In an Azure world, Snowplow users might want to run T-SQL scripts against Azure SQL Data Warehouse, or U-SQL scripts against Azure Data Lake Analytics. To enable this, we would extend SQL Runner, see issue #98 and issue #99 in that project’s repo.

8. Sequencing

There is a huge amount of new development involved in the above proposal! Here is a first attempt at phasing this work:

The rationale for splitting the work into these three phases is as follows:

8.1 Phase 1: Real-time pipeline through to Azure Data Lake Analytics

This is clearly a broadly-scoped phase one, but delivering this allows Snowplow users to:

  1. Build their own real-time apps on top of the real-time Snowplow event stream in Azure
  2. Do ad hoc data modeling and analytics on their Snowplow data in Azure Data Lake Store, using Data Lake Analytics

This covers off two of the key Snowplow use cases from the start.

8.2. Phase 2: batch processing of Snowplow data

Adding in the batch pipeline in Spark Enrich lets a Snowplow user do two things:

  1. Migrate a Snowplow event archive from AWS to Azure
  2. Perform a full historical re-processing of all their Snowplow raw data on Azure

8.3 Phase 3: loading Azure SQL Data Warehouse

Although loading Redshift is a mainstay of the Snowplow pipeline on AWS, we propose leaving this to the third development phase for Azure. There are two main reasons for this:

  1. We believe that most of the Redshift-style use cases can be covered with Azure Data Lake Analytics in phase 1
  2. Adding support for a new relational-columnar database to Snowplow is complex. There is a lot of foundational refactoring work we want to do to our existing Redshift load process first before tackling this


This RFC represents a hugely exciting new runtime for Snowplow, and so we welcome any and all feedback from the community. As always, please do share comments, feedback, criticisms, alternative ideas in the thread below.

In particular, we would appreciate any experience or guidance you have from working with Microsoft Azure in general or services such as HDInsight or Azure Data Lake Analytics in particular. We want to hear from you whether your experience comes from data engineering/analytics/science work on Azure, or general workloads!


This is pretty exciting stuff.

Here’s some things that come to mind:

  1. Should the implementations be tailored to each individual platform or is there (and should there) be an abstraction above each computing platform such that each platform and each product become interchangeable components*?

  2. Does it make sense to favour platform-agnostic components (like Kafka) over platform specific components (like Kinesis)? This might reduce effort to migrate but may not necessarily ofter the same flexibility/performance as tools built by individual platforms (e.g., features in Event Hubs that aren’t in Kinesis).

  3. Should it be possible for products on different platforms to run in not just sequence but also in parallel? An example of this might be events from a collector getting pushed into Kinesis and Event Hubs.

These questions aren’t really Azure specific but are more around the most popular platforms that aren’t AWS (Azure, Google, OpenStack).

  • I don’t think these two options are mutually exclusive but there’s obviously a trade off involved.

Some more thoughts

  1. Event Hubs seems to have only a few (3) client libraries at the moment. Similar to Kinesis it relies on the consumer to perform checkpointing - in AWS the KCL largely takes cares of this for you but Event Hubs doesn’t seem to have a common reusable component between libraries that I could find?
  2. The documentation suggests that once a stream has been created it’s not possible to modify the partition count. This is tied to the number of concurrent consumers so it’s not unlikely for people to want to modify this over time.

The partition count is not changeable, so you should consider long-term scale when setting partition count.

  1. The cheapest (~£1000/month) SQL data warehouse can only run 4 concurrent queries at the same time. Should the number of DWUs scale over the course of the day?

  2. Will the data collected (UTF-8) play nicely with UCS-2 in Data Warehouse or will some encoding conversions be required?


Hi Mike,

Alex and I had a bunch of discussions and I think we reached a general view that using platform native features would give the best experience on each platform. From the discussions, it sounds like snowplow has some abstractions in place that will help with this.

The Event Hubs libraries currently cover .NET, C, Java and NodeJS - is there a particular library that you were hoping for?

One of the benefits of leveraging the platform features like Event Hubs is that there are other components that integrate well with them, e.g. :

  • Functions for serverless computing over Event Hub messages. In this case, the Event Hub interaction is handled for you
  • Data Lake Analytics for on-demand analytics queries over the encriched data. The current data format won’t work easily with Data Lake Analytics, but we’re looking at a custom extractor that will handle this for you.
  • Stream Analytics for applying complex event processing on the enriched data stream [Note that is dependent on the work to clean up the enriched event format]

Alex - please chip in if you have any further comments :slight_smile:

Technical Evangelist - Microsoft


I just realised that I missed a couple of other questions on Event Hubs.

Whilst the partition count is fixed once the Hub has been created, you can scale the number of throughput units. So for low throughput you could have a single throughput unit handling multiple partitions. A partition can only be handled by a single throughput unit, so the maximum number of throughput units is bounded by the number of partitions.

From the FAQ here:

Throughput units are explicitly selected by the customer, either through the Azure portal or Event Hub management APIs. Throughput units apply to all Event Hubs in a namespace, and each throughput unit entitles the namespace to the following capabilities:

Up to 1 MB per second of ingress events (= events send into an Event Hub), but no more than 1000 ingress events, management operations, or control API calls per second.
Up to 2 MB per second of egress events (= events consumed from an Event Hub).
Up to 84GB of event storage (sufficient for the default 24 hour retention period).
Throughput units are billed hourly, based on the maximum number of units selected during this hour.

In terms of consuming events and checkpointing, I know that both the .NET and Java libraries have a class (EventProcessorHost) that handles this for you using storage blobs. Blob leases are also used to coordinate consumers to ensure that partitions are balanced between nodes reading from the Hub.

Hope that helps,
Technical Evangelist - Microsoft


Thanks @stuartleeks!

I think the platform native features do make the most sense, it’s often too easy to lose the underlying power of the platforms if a generic abstraction is placed on top of it.

Re: Event Hubs - I think it’d be great to have Python (though I’m biased) in that list as well. This makes it easier to interface with tools like Spark and other streaming services that might want to read from Event Hubs.

The EventProcessorHost is great - in my opinion it makes sense to have this for all the Event Hubs SDK so that

  • It’s faster for anyone to get started building applications that scale out of the box without worrying about leases
  • There is a predictable and best practice approach to checkpointing across languages (minimising possible confusion about the semantics of lease management/checkpointing)
  • And importantly, still leaving the option of performing bespoke lease management if required

@mike, I had a feeling you might say Python :wink:

For Spark specifically, there is a Direct DStream implementation can help.

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Hi @mike, I just wanted to pass on some information that might be useful regarding thoughts 3 and 4

3) The cheapest (~£1000/month) SQL data warehouse can only run 4 concurrent queries at the same time2. Should the number of DWUs1 scale over the course of the day?

Absolutely take advantage of the scaling as well as pause and resume capability inside an Azure SQL Data Warehouse (DW)! Azure SQL DW was built to have compute separated from storage so that you can resume and scale (costly) compute as and when you need it (within a couple of minutes) and remove compute cost completely when not needed (Storage is provisioned separate from compute to enable you to choose how you want to run your data warehouse).

So don’t calculate the compute cost as £1.037 * 24 * 31 like a VM but more how often does computation need to be done, and when it is done - is it large compute? why not scale the instance of compute and therefore also have more concurrent queries (4 - 32) - the choice is yours :slight_smile:

“So if you have so much choice, how do you manage it” I hear you say - it can be managed from inside the Azure Portal but also programmatically via REST API, Powershell or TSQL scripts, good examples within the documentation to leverage

4) Will the data collected (UTF-8) play nicely with UCS-2 in Data Warehouse or will some encoding conversions be required?

For this one I might need to double check - but I found a good article from the engineering team here: https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/blog/loading-data-into-azure-sql-dw-just-got-easier/ regarding an ask from many customers to get rid of tricky encoding tasks to get the data into Azure SQL DW so it shows an example of UTF-16 encoding and briefly mentions UTF-8, but let me dig a little deeper into that one. Also if you are looking to use Polybase to bring in data then UTF-8 is supported. https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/sql-data-warehouse/sql-data-warehouse-load-polybase-guide


Technical Evangelist at Microsoft


Thanks @amynic, that’s really useful information. One more question which I couldn’t find in the docs.

If there’s a scaling operation on SQL DW that modifies the DWUs on an instance what is the state of the cluster while scaling is happening on the compute layer? My understanding of the timeline is something like this (please correct me if this is incorrect):

  1. A request is made to scale the DW via API/Powershell/UI
  2. All incoming (current and queued?) queries are killed and any transactions that have not been committed are rolled back
  3. Additional compute resources are added to the cluster
  4. The cluster has scaled to desired compute capacity

During stage 3 what’s the expected behaviour of the cluster if it receives queries/connection attempts during this period?

Hi Mike!

Below should describe how stage 3 currently works:

Any query will be killed and rolled back when a scale change is requested regardless of % to completion.

A possible workaround is have two SQL DW instances in the same region pointing to the same data in Blob Storage. Create a load balancer across both SQL DW’s and then programmatically remove\add an instance into the load balancing configuration pre\post scaling. It’s not ‘built in’ but it can be engineered around the service. Basically you’re removing the DW instance which is scaling during the time of the scale operation, and then adding it back in once it’s ready. You can do this via the REST API or via T-SQL directly (against the master database of the DW instance).


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That’s a really cool idea - is this something that Azure would look at implementing internally over the long term?

Has any progress been made on porting Snowplow to Azure?

Hi @erosas - not yet alas!

Are there any updates on this? Is it still being considered?

Welcome to the community, @Nick_Tindle! Still in our plans, but alas still not underway. It’s a big project to build a production-worthy port (as we learned from GCP) and we’ve been chasing improvements to AWS, GCP and the core stack. One day though! I’ll DM with some thoughts on alternatives.


Thanks that would be great

Why not do an MVP on “lowest common denominator” services? Have had a couple clients who are 100% Azure, who would be good candidates for Snowplow but relying on a different cloud provider is a real roadblock.

Hi @petervcook ! We are working pretty hard on our core microservices to rearchitect them in a way that means they can be run across any cloud. (In practice this means moving them off of big data frameworks like Beam/Dataflow and Spark/EMR.) This should pave the way for an Azure port.

In parallel we are experimenting streaming Snowplow data from AWS / GCP into Azure to get a feel for what working with the data with the different Azure services is like. If this sort of setup is something that you think might work for your clients do get in touch - conscious though that this does leave a dependency on another cloud service…


Hi @yali,
would it be possible to get an Update on this rearchitecture of the core micro services?

This result came up via an internet search.

I’m currently involved in a project that, I think, might be a good match for snowplow in the next 6-12 months, but everything that hast been built was build in Azure.